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Exposure to Radio Waves near Mobile Phone Base Stations 조회수 : 2432
expouse to radio waves near mobile phone base stations.pdf
Exposure to Radio Waves near Mobile Phone Base Stations


Contents


1 Introduction 1


1.1 Background 1


1.2 Objectives 1


2 Base station characteristics 1


2.1 Principles of cellular radio networks 2


2.1.1 Providing coverage 2


2.1.2 Power control and network capacity 3


2.1.3 Cell sectors 4


2.2 General technical aspects 4


2.2.1 Electrical characteristics 5


2.2.2 Frequency allocations 5


2.2.3 GSM signal waveforms 6


2.2.4 Antenna beam shapes 7


2.2.5 Antenna gain 8


2.3 Specific data on radiated powers 9


2.3.1 Data from standards 9


2.3.2 Total radiated power 9


2.3.3 Effective isotropic radiated power 10


2.4 Microwave links 10


3 National and international exposure guidelines 11


3.1 Basis for guidelines 11


3.2 NRPB guidelines 11


3.2.1 Basic restrictions 12


3.2.2 Investigation levels 12


3.3 ICNIRP guidelines 13


3.3.1 Basic restrictions 13


3.3.2 Reference levels 14


3.4 Summary of guidelines 15


3.5 Exposure assessment 16


4 Measurement equipment and surveying procedures 16


4.1 Instrumentation 16


4.1.1 Measurement antennas 17


4.1.2 Spectrum analyser 17


4.1.3 Data acquisition 18


4.2 Data processing 18


4.2.1 Calculation of power density 18


4.2.2 Spreadsheet calculations 18


4.2.3 Example results 19


4.3 Surveying technique 19


4.3.1 General method 19


4.3.2 Limitations 19


4.4 Measurement uncertainty 20


5 Results of exposure assessments 21


5.1 Calculation of exposures 21


5.1.1 Far-field power density calculation 21


5.1.2 Near-field power density evaluation 22


5.1.3 Direct SAR evaluation 22


5.2 Predicted compliance distances 22


5.2.1 GSM900 base station antennas 23


5.2.2 GSM1800 base station antennas 23


5.3 Power density at ground level 24


5.4 Measured power densities 25


5.4.1 Base stations of interest 25


5.4.2 Comparison with theory 26


5.4.3 All environmental signals 27


5.4.4 Statistical analysis 27


5.5 Exposures produced by base station and other signals 29


5.5.1 Exposure due to signals from all sources 29


5.5.2 Exposure due to the base station of interest 31


5.5.3 Exposure from all base stations 31


6 Conclusions 33


7 Acknowledgements 34


8 References 34


Appendix A Technical Data from Operators 35


Appendix B Measured Power Density Spectra 41